The major bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits are diosmin, hesperidin, rutin, naringin, tangeretin, diosmetin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, and quercetin. Citrus bioflavonoids and related substances are widely used in Europe to treat diseases of the blood vessels and lymph system, including hemorrhoids, chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, easy bruising, nosebleeds, and lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. These compounds are thought to work by strengthening the walls of blood vessels. According to a study published in the November 2007 issue of “Alternative Therapies,” citrus flavonoids reduced patient’s LDL 19 to 27 percent, and triglycerides 24 to 34 percent, while HDL levels remained unchanged. Citrus flavonoids exhibit anti-cancer activity by helping metabolize carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or neutralizing them to prevent their biological actions. Another method citrus flavonoids help protect against cancer is due to suppressing agents that prevent the formation of new cancers by pro-carcinogens, and by blocking agents that prevent carcinogens from reaching critical initiation sites. The JAFC study reveals that a large portion of citrus flavonoid activity appears to benefit blood and microvascular cells. In animal studies, its protection against coronary heart disease appear to be related to its anti-thrombotic, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect that widens blood vessels, improving cardiac blood flow. Vasorelaxation also decreases the ability for platelets to stick together and form blood clots.